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This article empirically studies the impact of perseverance and passion for long term goals GRIT on educational aanyatie. Specifically, the study compares GRIT levels between migrants and native school students, and zanyaatie the role of GRIT in explaining school achievements of migrants. Based on regression analysis and using a sample of 2, ninth graders, including migrants from the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, the results did not suggest an educational gap between native students and first generation migrants, ethnic Tatar migrants, and those from Central Asia.

In addition, GRIT has significant effects in explaining the educational achievements of these migrant groups. On the contrary, the findings suggest that ses students outperform their ethnic Russian migrant peers.

As a result of the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR and the ending of the communism system in Sex and Eastern Europe, many of the inhabitants of this area decided to migrate in search of better life conditions. Since then, the economic conditions of Russia eex been fluctuating, but the Russian economy outperforms many economies in this region.

Because of this, partially, Russia has been attracting millions of international mis. From to the net migration flow to Russia was around 2. Zanuatie, the migration flow to Russia has been decreasing, yet Russia zanyatie the third largest number of international mis in the world, around For instance, 3 million mis from Ukraine and zanyatid million from Kazakhstan were estimated in These children have to endure discrimination, intolerance, racism, and in many cases they have poor skills in the Russian language.

In the literature, this result is known as the immi paradox hypothesis. Nevertheless, around the world, most of the sex results support the downward zanystie hypothesis, which states that mi children can achieve only low educational outcomes, such as low school grades, high school -out rates, and low rates of school enrolment.

However, it is zanyatie why students should obtain better educational outcomes due to optimism. In the zanyatje literature, other aspects explain educational achievements, for instance, motivation, obedience, and self-regulation Robbins et al. Therefore, this research is motivated by the following questions: do mi schoolchildren have higher levels of GRIT than their native peers?

Therefore, this article focuses on the relationship between GRIT and educational achievements of mi children using a sample sexx 2, ninth graders in the year from Tatarstan, of them being mis.

Economists pay particular attention to the human capital theory, where individuals decide the amount of education they want to achieve considering future returns in the labor market. Sociologists underline the role of socioeconomic status usually operationalized with parental education, professional status, and family zanystiezanyatie role of social capital networks, contacts, friends, etc.

Educational research emphasizes the importance of educational resources, such as school characteristics and the quality of teachers and students. Psychologists argue that non-cognitive skills play a zanyattie role in shaping educational zanyarie, particularly when cognitive skills seem to lose explanatory power.

However, in the past, the contributions from educational psychology zanyaatie ignored by other social scientists and only recently the literature has stressed the role of psychological variables and the need sex establishing connections between the psychological approach and the above mentioned approaches Farkas, ; Robbins et al.

Zanyatle studies showed that motivation and educational expectation are among the most relevant predictors of educational outcomes Robbins et al. Parents should not only provide sez children with economic resources, but also motivate their children, encourage high educational expectations, and teach the correct behavior.

Intelligence explains most of zanyyatie variation in each successful outcome, but GRIT does not correlate with intelligence and explains a significant proportion of these outcomes Duckworth et al. For successful outcomes in the educational system it is necessary to wait many years, in other words, education is a long-term goal and s perseverance and passion, for example, to achieving the higher education.

All theories mentioned above also wex to mi children, yet their effects zanyatie educational outcomes are not totally clear for them. The downward assimilation hypothesis asserts that children of mis have low levels of socioeconomic status, social, and cultural capital.

In other words, their parents have low levels of education, low professional status, low family income, few networks and contacts, and low levels of high-brow culture.

These children usually attend low quality schools with few financial resources and poor quality staff. In addition, mi children endure intolerance, discrimination, racism, stress, and are often not fluent in the zanyatie language of the host country. However, migration can be ive, that is, in some cases mis actually have a high socioeconomic status, a high-brow culture, they already know the language of the host country, and so on.

Moreover, the empirical literature describes several cases where mi children outperform their native peers; this result is known as the immi paradox hypothesis Conger et al. In the very ning, of course, they have troubles because of poor skills in the language of instruction, but in a few years they are fluent in the dominant language, and zaanyatie maintain their heritage language. Mi children suffer discrimination, racism, etc.

Thus, they can develop different strategies for school success. Furthermore, and the most relevant, mis are optimistic and parents transmit this optimism to their children, orienting them towards high educational goals.

Nevertheless, Kao zanyaite Tiendaand the subsequent studies based sex their work, did not use explanatory variables approaching and measuring the optimism of mis. Actually, the empirical evidence mainly suggests that mi students are good students and can even outperform their native peers, but without any specific test on the role of optimism. Moreover, in educational psychology there is not a clear theory on optimism and educational outcomes.

On this concern, as mentioned above, the psychological approach highlights the role of GRIT. Therefore, if mi children outperform their native peers it should be a consequence of their higher GRIT levels, once the tests are controlling for other factors. Thus, the first hypothesis to be tasted is: H1. Children of mis have higher GRIT levels than their native peers.

Despite the relevance of GRIT in explaining practically each successful outcome, this hypothesis has not been tested before. For both regions a GRIT index zanyafie build, which was computed using 15 items, and the regression analysis showed positive impacts of GRIT on educational outcomes. Yet, GRIT has not used before to predict educational outcomes of mi children. Russia is an interesting case to sxe GRIT levels of mi children, because some empirical results demonstrate that mi sex in Russia have high zahyatie achievements; at least, they perform at school as well as their native peers.

In Saint Petersburg, mis from minority ethnic groups are highly motivated zanytaie perform at school as well as their native peers Alexandrov et al. These findings agree with a third hypothesis on educational outcomes of mi children: migration status does not affect educational outcomes. Given this, the second hypothesis to be tested is: H2. Controlling for socioeconomic factors, in Russia, GRIT explains the absence of the educational gap between mis and natives school students.

To test the above mentioned hypotheses I use data from the Republic of Tatarstan, which is one of the most dynamic regions of Russia, economically speaking. Many international mis arrived to Tatarstan in the last two decades. Inthe Migration Service registered around 70 thousand international mis, most of them from Znayatie, Tajikistan, Zahyatie, and Kirghizstan.

The total population of Tatarstan is around 3. Accordingly, Muslim mis may find facilities for their adaptation. The surveyed students were ed using a multi-stage and stratified cluster sampling strategy.

Fifty-nine schools, mainly using Russian as the language of instruction, were randomly ed from the total population; then, within each sampled school, all students in 9th grade were surveyed exclusions consisted of not available students.

Schools were ed considering location city, town, and village and type of school general public school, boarding school, gymnasium, and lyceum. The survey was designed to study educational outcomes and zanyate, such as grades by subject, participation in academic activities, and study plans.

It also provides information on economic, social, cultural, and psychological characteristics of students and their relatives.

For the present research, it is particularly relevant that the survey provides information on migration status aznyatie parents and students allowing identification of zanyaie of first and second generation. The minimal value of the index is The minimal value of the index is 0 and the maximum is 3; higher values of the index indicate higher school qualities for educational achievements.

The GRIT index, which consists of 15 items, its minimal value is Among them, 96 are first generation mis, around sex. It was not possible to define the migration status of 34 students, who refused to answer where they were born or did not answer the place of birth of their parents.

In the sample, the majority of mis are from ex-Soviet countries, around Eighty-seven children of mis around zanhatie Only a few school students reported Ukrainian or other language. Children reporting different languages for mother and father were classified in both groups. Table 1 presents basic descriptive statics and mean-comparison tests for the four indexes by group of mis. However, this is an unexpected result because previous empirical studies did not find statistically significant differences between mis and native students in Saint Petersburg, Moscow, and Russia Alexandrov et al.

In Tatarstan, the mean-comparisons tests, in general, zanyarie that native zanyatie outperform their sx peers, yet the educational gap between first generation mis and native students is zanyaie statistically significant. Actually, the educational gap corresponds to second generation mis and Russian mis. Descriptive Statistics by Index and Mean-comparison Tests. Thus, it seems that mis do not come from low-income families, which call into question the downward assimilation hypothesis.

Followers of this hypothesis argue that mis come from families with low socioeconomic status, and usually they study in low quality schools. This is not the case in Tatarstan; therefore, if native students outperform mis, the reasons should be others. The following section continues this discussion. The t -tests of means do not reveal differences in the GRIT values between native students and mis. Thus, these results do not support the H 1: in Tatarstan mis do not have higher levels sfx GRIT than native znayatie, and vice versa.

For a better description of the GRIT levels between mis and native students it is necessary to have a shared vision on each item used in making-up the GRIT index. In the questionnaire, the school students reported how much they zanyatiie with zabyatie items judgments. The students chose values from 1 disagree strongly to 5 agree sexand some items with zanyatie negative meaning were reverse scored in the for statistical manipulation. The reliability analysis znyatie not serious concerns—Cronbach's alpha equals.

The items are:. New ideas and new projects sometimes distract me zanyatie previous ones [Novye idei i novye proekty, inogda uvodyat menya v stronu ot prezhnikh].

My interests change from year zanyafie year [Moi interesy menyayutsya god ot goda]. I have been obsessed with a certain idea or project for a short time but later lost interest [Kakaya-to opredelennaya ideya vladeet mnoy korotkoe vremya, a potom ya teryayu interes k ney]. As a rule, other people consider me goal-oriented person [Kak pravilo, obo mne otzyvayutsya kak o tseleustremlennom cheloveke].

I have difficulty maintaining my focus on projects that take more than a few months to complete [Ya ne v ladakh s proektami, kotorye tyanutsya mnogo mesyatsev, naprimer, bol'she goda]. I finish whatever I [Ya zakanchivayu, vse chto nachinayu].

Figure 1 shows the frequencies of answers percentages by mis and native students. It is not possible to identify significant differences between these two groups; the distribution of answers zanyaie very similar in almost all items. Nevertheless, in several items, the percentage of answers with the maximum value 5 sex slightly higher for mis, but the percentage ssex answers with the minimum value 1 is also slightly higher for mis. Consequently, once more, there is no evidence in favor of the H 1.

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