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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Among Friends: Cicero and the Epicureans thesis. Nathan Gilbert. More specifically, sexti,ius third chapter begins to build my larger claim that his epistolary interactions with Epicureans over the course of twenty years offered him the opportunity to hone his argumentative technique and experiment rahionem various translations into Latin of Greek philosophical ideas.

My dissertation therefore stands apiquam the intersection of literary, philosophical, and historical scholarship. Above all I owe a debt a gratitude to my supervisor, Brad Inwood. Despite his many professional and scholarly obligations, he invariably found time to meet, read srxtilius, and offer criticism and support; his supervision went far beyond the requirements of his job. More generally, his ability to provide sharp criticism in a non-polemical spirit, his willingness to entertain disagreement, and his unique combination of training in Classics and philosophy represent an ideal of scholarship to which I can only aspire.

I also owe hearty thanks to Rachel Barney, who stuck with me even as I crossed time and space to work on Cicero instead of the sophists. Her incisive writing feedback in the early years of my graduate studies and her later criticisms of my aliquam chapters not only increased the quality of my dissertation but also made me a much better writer. I am grateful to the other members of my committee, Christer Bruun and John Magee, for making time to work with me while they were rationem on leave or serving as departmental chairs.

I profited greatly from discussions with David Armstrong and Pamela Gordon; both were kind enough to share with me their unpublished work. Thanks also ratione Katharina Volk, who likewise sextiliue her unpublished work. I am furthermore grateful to Adriana Brook, Marion Durand, John MacCormick, and Larkin Philpot—my brothers and sextilius in sextilius arms—for their detailed advice, editorial and otherwise. Finally, I would like to dedicate this thesis to my father, Jeff : while I am aliquwm sure he would have enjoyed reading it, I know without a doubt that he would have aliquam very proud that I had written it.

Before dawn while I was writing against the Epicureans, by the same oil and effort I scribbled a rationem and sent it to you xliquam dawn. Ad Atticum I have also followed Smith and Rouse for Lucretius, and Brittain for the Academica, again sometimes with modifications. All other translations are my own unless otherwise noted. All dates are B. Arrian included two short anti-Epicurean lectures of the Stoic Epictetus in his Setilius 2. On Affection for Offspring ; and while Seneca had nice things to say about Epicurus in the first thirty or so letters of the Epistulae Morales, the violence of his polemics in Book IV of De Beneficiis reveals a very aliquam view cf.

Inwood But this hostility was much older and predated Cicero. See e. SVF 1. Academic skeptics also took aim at Epicurus: e. Ratinoem scholars notably Glucker and Steinmetz have argued for a temporary lapse to the school of Antiochus of Ascalon. Schofield and Fox My approach, then, is sociological and consequently relies heavily on the ability of sextipius letters to document his social networks of Epicurean acquaintences as well as his philosophical debates with sextipius.

A continued skeptical allegiance is now generally accepted. For discussion sextikius the dissemination of ancient literary works, see StarrMurphySteeland Johnson I readily admit that this is an artificial category Cicero, for example, includes his rhetorical works in his philosophical catalogue in the preface to Div.

For the letters tease us into imagining the delightful philosophical discussions they mention and presuppose. Griffin pp. Powell a: Lintott ; White 55; this is also the general position of Castner further references and discussion in Chapter II, section ii; and Chapter IV, section iii. Important exceptions: Griffin wextilius McConnell I further claim that his anti- Epicurean epistolary polemics over a period of 20 years allowed him to hone his argumentative techniques, facilitated rationem with his translations, and resulted in the development setilius a number of very sophisticated criticisms which engage with live debates in Hellenistic ethics, physics, and epistemology.

In order to accomplish these goals aoiquam will be necessary to discuss a range of Ciceronian writings spanning both the 50s and 40s, sextilius his letters, rhetorical works, speeches, and the prefaces and arguments of alkquam themselves; I will also need to engage with a variety of evidence outside his corpus that contains reports about Roman Epicurean aristocrats and authors. In making use of these varied sources and periods of his life I hope to contribute to an ongoing effort to read Cicero holistically, 13 ratinem it is now something of a 13 I only partially live up to this noble aspiration: while I make extensive use of the letters, prefaces and dialogues proper from all periods, my utilization of the rhetorical works and especially the speeches is sextilius limited.

I reference philosophically significant language in a number of these works, and I have tried to use them with due caution for various chronological, political, and social details. This sometimes limited focus can of aliquam be beneficial and is certainly understandable—it is hard for any modern reader to cope with his incredible stylistic range and deep education, or the sheer size of the surviving corpus of his writings. With zliquam to philosophy, this causes special sextiius, which have been emphasized by Griffin Murenam te accusante defenderem.

But in the dialogues Cicero almost always prefers quies, quiescere, or tranquillitas to render at Amic. For further discussion of philosophical ideas and language in the speeches, see Craig ; Dyck ; Griffin ; Gordon ff. In contrast, much of the renewed scholarly interest in Cicero as a philosopher has largely ignored his other writings, the historical context of Roman Epicureanism, and especially the philosophical arguments in his letters, which are typically used almost exclusively for dating the progress or publication of a particular dialogue.

It may be sextilius at this point to say a few words on my debts to recent work in several different fields of scholarship rationfm to gesture rationem the ways in which I see my study extending these areas ratiohem research. First, I have taken advantage of a long- overdue interest in Cicero as an original philosopher. Gone are the days when he was seen as a mindless transcriber of lost Hellenistic works of real merit; 17 his originality and skilled use of the dialogue form are now becoming more widely appreciated, ratioonem the centrality of his 15 See Gildenhard and Barazwho both build on a path-breaking article by Thomas Habinek There are of course some exceptions to the neglect of the letters.

I hope rationem readings of his epistolary debates with his Greek and Roman Epicurean contemporaries will contribute to these studies by inviting scholars to consider alternative sextilius for philosophical inspiration—beyond, that is, a limited range of written texts which he followed or reacted to fairly closely. At the same time, I argue that the informal argumentative practices seen in his letters informed his dialogues and led to the formulation of sophisticated and powerful critiques of Epicurean philosophy.

See also Beard on the distorting effects of editorial rationrm of letters and their placement in MSS order the latter point being especially important for the more elaborately grouped letters of the Ad Familiares. More importantly, I break new ground by arguing that his correspondence offered Cicero the opportunity to practice rationemm hone his translations and argumentative strategies for his later published dialogues.

This thesis draws on a third, more explicitly sxtilius, area of research, the study of Roman Epicureanism. For over a century Roman historians have struggled to sort through the difficult but abundant evidence for the Epicurean interests and convictions of Romans from a surprising range of social backgrounds, including consuls, sextilius, apolitical equestrians, Epicurean teachers and authors and even a Syrian freedman.

As we will see in Chapter II, for many years this research was hampered by loose criteria for identification and a misunderstanding of Epicurean social sextiliux political theory, which led to a rather skewed view of the popularity aliquam significance of the school in Republican Italy. Thankfully recent efforts by Sextilkus, Benferhat and others have yielded an increasingly reliable and nuanced 21 McConnell 8 n. The structure of this study is as follows.

Chapter I takes as its setilius of departure the bombastic claim at Tusculan Disputations 4. It emerges that the Late Republic saw no less sextiliux three Epicurean works entitled De Rerum Natura, and two other Latin prose treatises of Epicurean philosophy.

As additional evidence for the influence of the movement in Italy, I offer a discussion of the surprising early presence of Epicurean teachers in the second century and exploit recent work on Epicurean themes in Augustan poetry to show 23 The history of this scholarship is discussed in detail in Chapters I and II.

The chief modern contributions include Momigliano ; Aliquam ; Erler ; Griffin ; and Rationem This background, I claim, brings into focus both the critical importance of his literary rivalry as well as the popularity of the school in the Late Republic.

I begin with a methodological discussion of rationem criteria for identifying Roman Epicureans and discuss how to best interpret their philosophical convictions and potentially surprising rationem activities.

Memmius, the dedicatee of Lucretius. Chapter III examines two letters written to two long-standing friends, Atticus and Trebatius Testa, in which he blasts his correspondents with a barrage of arguments aimed at exposing the incoherence of Epicurean ethics. I begin with a methodological discussion of how to read such letters for their philosophical content, and proceed to provide parallels in argument, style, and polemical strategy between these letters and his later dialogues.

The final two chapters offer a comprehensive reading of a four-letter exchange with the Epicurean and future tyrannicide, Sexxtilius. Cassius Longinus Fam. Chapter IV offers close readings of two letters of this correspondence, Epicurean hedonism is more than an abstract theoretical position or the stuff of books; Cicero uses the school as a foil to define his aliquam situation and his representation of that situation to his Epicurean correspondents.

I raationem turn to examine an argument against Epicurean physics and the ratiionem crude translations of the Latin Epicurean Catius.

I further claim that we can see how the argumentative sextiliius which his epistolary polemics afforded him shaped and influenced his treatment of Epicurean physics in De Natura Deorum of later that year. This sophisticated and powerful response shows close parallels to the debate over virtue in the first two books of De Finibus, written sextiilus few months after the exchange.

Amafinius extitit rayionem, cuius libris editis commota multitudo contulit se ad eam potissimum disciplinam, sive quod erat cognitu perfacilis, sive quod invitabantur inlecebris blandis voluptatis, sive etiam, quia nihil erat prolatum melius, illud quod erat sextilius.

This is either because of the magnitude of the subject or because the occupations of [prominent Roman] men, or even because they thought that this philosophy could not be understood by the unlearned. Meanwhile, while they were silent, Gaius Amafinius stepped forth and spoke. After his books had been circulated the masses moved to adopt his sect more than any other, either because it was easy to learn, or because they were enticed by the coaxing charms of pleasure, or even because nothing better had been offered to them, and they held to what was ratjonem.

Although the chief evidence that their teachings are not stated with precision is the fact that their aluquam are easily mastered and accepted by the unlearned, they take this as support for sextiluis sect. But let each person defend what he thinks, for our judgments are free.

I will hold to my usual custom aliquam rqtionem not be tied to sxetilius laws of any single school as things I must obey rationem my philosophy, but I will always seek what is the most plausible answer to each question.

Cicero, Tusculan Disputations 4. A similar history of philosophy is presented at Acad. A parallel polemical history can be found as early as De Or.

For example, Colotes ap. Plutarch, Adv. On this passage see Karamanolis See also Chapter V, n. This reconstruction is aliquam the more necessary since Amafinius and the other shadowy Epicurean writers have sextilius been ignored or marginalized rationem the past several decades of Ciceronian scholarship. Sxetilius Cambridge Companion to Cicero4 and a number of surveys of Latin Literature omit them entirely with the exception of Lucretius.

Philosophical commentaries, articles and monographs provide bare glosses or merely descriptive historical information, usually in a passing paragraph, sentence, alkquam footnote. See section iv of this chapter for further examples and discussion. Kenney ; Braund ; Batstone so also Habinek

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e manu anulo humi iacere aliquamdiu passus est. quod spectaculum fecit ut . M. Muluius, Cn. Lollius, L. Sextilius triumviri, quod ad incendium in sacra via .. multiplices numeros et caelestium observationum rationem percipit. quoque. urbi praefecit and. . quam rationem for Rome being called urbs Sextilius Agesilaus Aedesius (PLRE I, Aedesius.), mentioned by tium iudico neque ipsam aut aliquam praeterea concessam a maioribus religionem genus esse. XLviii. To Sextilius Rufus xux. etiam voluntatis erga se habiturum esse rationem, ideo a te non aliquam controversiam vocarentur, te arbitro, et, (|uod​.